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written by will mcgough for mental floss:
When I saw the Caribbean Sea in person for the first time, my eyes metaphorically popped out of my head. As a kid who grew up in South Jersey, I was used to the dirty, almost brown, kinda-sorta blue color of the coastal Atlantic Ocean. But this was different. Staring at that bright, vibrant, and seemingly crystal-clear water, I had many questions. Where did that color come from? And why can I see my feet here, but not at home? Is the Caribbean water cleaner? Is the sun stronger down south? And how come it’s green-blue near the shore, yet navy blue a mile off shore?
Having traveled quite a bit since, I’ve heard all kinds of explanations from common folks, some chalking color differences up to pollution and others to salinity. While I’m certain that many factors, including those two, play some small role, the biggest influencers are the floor, depth, and microorganisms of the body of water.
First off, let’s tackle why water, in most cases, appears blue to begin with.
If you’ve ever taken a cruise, you know that the farther offshore you sail, the deeper and bolder the blue becomes (navy blue). That’s because there are no reflections off the sea floor in very deep water, meaning that a majority of the sun’s rays are absorbed by the water itself. Water molecules, by nature, absorb reds, greens, oranges, and yellows, but spit out blue.
“When sunlight hits the ocean, some of the light is reflected back directly but most of it penetrates the ocean surface and interacts with the water molecules that it encounters,” explains NASA’s Oceanography Division. “The red, orange, yellow, and green wavelengths of light are absorbed so that the remaining light we see is composed of the shorter wavelength blues and violets.”
As the water depth decreases and the light is able to penetrate all the way to the bottom, the makeup of the floor becomes a factor in determining water color. For example, the coarse Caribbean coral is going to reflect light differently than the fine sand found in the Northeast. These differences in absorption and reflection affect visibility as well as color.
Whatever light is not reflected back from the top layer of water or the bottom of the sea floor is absorbed by something in the water. As we saw above, lots of light is consumed by the water molecules themselves, but microorganisms living in the water also “eat” their fair share. The final major players in determining color are the particles and organisms found and suspended in the water. Phytoplankton, for example, harbors chlorophyll that absorbs red and blue light and reflects green. If a high concentration exists in one area, the water will take on a green hue. The more there are, the greener the water will appear.
Those three factors—depth, floor makeup, and life (plus intangibles, like pollution, as mentioned above)—will interact to produce whatever color we happen to see. The same principles apply to other bodies of water, like lakes, craters, and rivers. It’s all about what’s in and under the water.
And, despite our focus on the oceans, it’s not all about being green, blue, or brown. Check out these uniquely colored tourist attractions found in different parts of the world as examples. If you thought the greenish-blue of the Caribbean was impressive, the red and black volcanic lakes should knock your socks off.
Courtesy of Flickr user Valdiney Pimenta
Red sediments and algae pigmentation produce the unique red color of this salt lake in Bolivia, which is further contrasted by the white borax islands that are spotted throughout it. Located at more than 13,000 feet above sea level, the lagoon is part of the Andean Fauna National Reserve and is a common roosting spot for a variety of flamingo species.
Courtesy of Flickr user NeilsPhotography
This volcano harbors three crater lakes at its summit that are strikingly different from one another in terms of color. Typically, Tiwu Ata Mbupu (Lake of Old People) appears blue, Tiwu Nuwa Muri Koo Fai (Lake of Young Men and Maidens) green, and Tiwu Ata Polo (Bewitched or Enchanted Lake) either black or red, although they all are known to change shades quite frequently and unpredictably. The latter two are separated by a crater wall, creating a stunning distinction when viewed side-by-side, especially when they are green and black, as seen in the photo. Thus far, research has revealed no official explanation for the differences and changing colors, but the general consensus is that chemical reactions are being triggered by volcanic gas activity that drives nutrient-rich water to the surface.
Courtesy of Flickr user Peter Nijenhuis
Glacial erosion fills this body of water with glacier flour, or finely-ground rock particles, resulting in a frosty, cloudy-blue color (this mixture is sometimes referred to as glacial milk). Lake Pukaki has a surface area of approximately 111 square miles and was formed when glacial debris known as moraine dammed up the valley. There are glacier lakes in at least a dozen countries throughout the world that take on this “milky” appearance. While they are not abnormally colored, the Great Lakes are the largest glacial lakes in the world.
happy father’s day. here are two classic pics of famous dads. above, jfk with his daughter caroline in 1958 (via life). below, harry belafonte & bill cosby spending time with mlk’s kids (martin iii, dexter and yolanda) not long after dr. king’s murder in 1968 (via vintage black glamour).
a 20-year-old jean-michel basquiat did what many people do at that age: made a resume. however given that he was more financially well-off/indifferent than most of his peers at the time, his CV was more of an artistic/recreational pursuit. highlights:
i wouldn’t imagine anybody getting a regular job with this on merit (though the references might do wonders). still, sotheby’s listed it for a solid working salary ($50,000). first spotted at black contemporary art.
on the website zen pencils, gavin aung than blends two of his interests: cartoons and inspirational quotes. gavin animates the words of people like muhammad ali & helen keller, giving them an extra dimension. below is the one he did on malala yousafzai, the pakistani girl who last year was shot in the head by the taliban for supporting a girl’s right to an education:
I think that’s a responsibility that I have, to push possibilities, to show people: “This is the level that things could be at.” So when you get something that has the name Kanye West on it, it’s supposed to be pushing the furthest possibilities.
with the coming of yeezus a few days away, mr. west shared with nytimes’s jon caramanica his thoughts on family, the new album, motivations behind his other projects, changes in his identity, fighting restrictions, etc. some quotables:
When your debut album, “The College Dropout” came out, the thing that people began to associate with you besides music was: Here’s someone who’s going to argue for his place in history; like, “Why am I not getting five stars?”
I think you got to make your case. Seventh grade, I wanted to be on the basketball team. I didn’t get on the team, so that summer I practiced. I was on the summer league. My team won the championship; I was the point guard. And then when I went for eighth grade, I practiced and I hit every free throw, every layup, and the next day I looked on this chart, and my name wasn’t on it. I asked the coach what’s up, and they were like, “You’re just not on it.” I was like, “But I hit every shot.” The next year — I was on the junior team when I was a freshman, that’s how good I was. But I wasn’t on my eighth-grade team, because some coach — some Grammy, some reviewer, some fashion person, some blah blah blah — they’re all the same as that coach. Where I didn’t feel that I had a position in eighth grade to scream and say, “Because I hit every one of my shots, I deserve to be on this team!” I’m letting it out on everybody who doesn’t want to give me my credit.
You look at Jay or Diddy, and I’d say like, 90 percent of the time, you think they’re having a good time. With you, I would say, I don’t know, 50-50 maybe? Or 30-70?
Maybe 90 percent of the time it looks like I’m not having a good time.
A lot happened between “Graduation” and “808s,” obviously: a lot of struggle, a lot of tough things for you. [Mr. West’s mother died in 2007.]
Creative output, you know, is just pain. I’m going to be cliché for a minute and say that great art comes from pain. But also I’d say a bigger statement than that is: Great art comes from great artists. There’s a bunch of people that are hurt that still couldn’t have made the album that was super-polarizing and redefined the sound of radio.
One of the things that you’ve thrived on over the years is sort of a self-conception as an outsider, that you’re fighting your way in. Do you still, in this moment, feel like that?
No, I don’t think I feel like that anymore. I feel like I don’t want to be inside anymore. Like, I uninvited myself.
I think just more actual self-realization and self-belief. The longer your ‘gevity is, the more confidence you build. The idea of Kanye and vanity are like, synonymous. But I’ve put myself in a lot of places where a vain person wouldn’t put themselves in. Like what’s vanity about wearing a kilt?
check out the full interview here.
details via artist cheryl sorg:
Thumbprint portraits use your own thumbprint to create a large (three feet high!), modern, colorful work of art that will be absolutely YOU. I will use your own thumbprint and recreate its unique patterns using snippets of imagery, text and color from your favorite things (you’ll provide a list and I’ll pore through and gather hundreds of images to best represent that list). Your favorites could include much-loved books, music, films, poetry, quotes, places traveled and lived and more. The result is a truly one-of-a-kind portrait that captures your personality and passions. It makes a wonderful gift for yourself or a loved one. A great way to do a unique family portrait – you could create one for each family member, or (like the one shown above!) use one family member’s thumbprint and incorporate the interests of all family members into one portrait.
take a close look at the portraits in the gallery below. think about what you might include your portrait (you can buy one here) and share in the comments. to help you along, listen to “my favorite things” by john coltrane.
the council of brunete in madrid teamed up with mccann to stop negligent pooper scoopers. the results are priceless:
During the course of a week, around twenty volunteers watched over for dog’s owners who failed to scoop. They then approached the owner and struck up a casual conversation to discover the name of the dog and picked up the poo, which was parceled and sent in a box by courier to the pet owners home.
this is not only funny, but apparently effective (according to the video, 70% less doo doo has been spotted around the city). they should try this on people who litter. via hyc.
amorino makes art out of ice cream, taking organic/natural ingredients and crafting them into tasty roses. their flowers come in flavors like indian alphonso mango, unique (chocolate & hazelnut), and bourbon vanilla (pictured). the italian-based company has shops throughout europe with one also in nyc (find the one closest to you here). spotted @ aestivo.
I’ve given up hope of ever fully understanding the fractured things I saw while chasing the Serie A soccer circus around Italy. Let me be honest. I got sent to write about racism, which I found in staggering amounts. But Italy isn’t like America, and racism there is tied into a thousand years of feuds, and hatred of anyone different, even if they’re from only a few miles away, and fascism, and the recent wave of immigration. That’s all in here, but it’s unfair to hide my predicament, which became clear after only a day or two. I’d fallen into a parallel universe of contradictions.
thompson travels everywhere from football terraces to refugee camps, trying to unpack things like a fan who was “a great dude…until he started quoting hitler and dropping n-bombs” or why home-born italians like soccer star mario balotelli are subject to xenophobic vitriol in their own country. he finds that the issues extend to all levels of football and in some cases, start with deep-rooted problems that stretch beyond the pitch. follow his journey in the compelling article below and let know what you think.
j. cole’s latest single is a shot of self-esteem, encouraging listeners to be happy with how god made them. the surviving members of tlc are featured on the track (which is fitting since this song shares a similar message as their single “unpretty”). full lyrics below. cole’s sophomore album born sinner comes out in 2 weeks (pre-order it here):
I’m on my way, on my way, on my way down (x2)
You’re the one that was tryna keep me way down
But like the sun know you know I found my way back round
[Verse 1: J. Cole]
They tell me I should fix my grill cause I got money now
I ain’t gon’ sit around and front like I ain’t thought about it
A perfect smile is more appealing but it’s funny how
My shit is crooked look at how far I done got without it
I keep my twisted grill, just to show them kids it’s real
We ain’t picture perfect but we worth the picture still
I got smart, I got rich, and I got bitches still
And they all look like my eyebrows: thick as hell
Love yourself, girl, or nobody will
Oh, you a woman? I don’t know how you deal
With all the pressure to look impressive and go out in heels
I feel for you
Killing yourself to find a man that’ll kill for you
You wake up, put makeup on
Stare in the mirror but its clear that you can’t face what’s wrong
No need to fix what God already put his paint brush on
Your roommate yelling, “Why you gotta take so long?”
What it’s like to have a crooked smile
This crooked smile
[Verse 2: J. Cole]
To all the women with the flaws, know it’s hard my darling
You wonder why you’re lonely and your man’s not calling
You keep falling victim cause you’re insecure
And when I tell you that you’re beautiful you can’t be sure
Cause you see that no one wants you back and it got you asking
So all you see is what you lacking, not what you packing
Take it from a man that loves what you got
And baby you’re a star, don’t let ‘em tell you you’re not
Now is it real? Eyebrows, fingernails, hair
Is it real? if it’s not, girl you don’t care
Cause what’s real is something that the eyes can’t see
That the hands can’t touch, that them broads can’t be, and that’s you
Never let ‘em see you frown
And if you need a friend to pick you up, I’ll be around
And we can ride with the windows down, the music loud
I can tell you ain’t laughed in a while
But I wanna see that crooked smile
[Bridge 1: J. Cole (TLC)]
Crooked smile, we could style on ‘em (back ’round)
Crooked smile, we could style on ‘em (back ’round)
(You’re the one that was trying to keep me way down.
Like the sun, I know you know I found my way back round..)
[Verse 3: J. Cole]
We don’t look nothing like the people on the screen
You know them movie stars, picture perfect beauty queens
But we got dreams and we got the right to chase ‘em
Look at the nation, that’s a crooked smile braces couldn’t even straighten
Seem like half the race is either on probation, or in jail
Wonder why we inhale, cause we in hell already
I asked if my skin pale, would I then sell like Eminem or Adele?
Yo one more time for the ‘Ville
And fuck all of that beef shit, nigga let’s make a mil
Hey officer man, we don’t want nobody getting killed
Just open up that cell, let my brother out of jail
I got money for the bail now, well now
If you asking will I tell now? Hell naw
I ain’t snitching cause
Man, they get them niggas stitches now
If you was around, then you wouldn’t need a witness now
How you like this crooked smile?